The King Over the Water: A Complete History of the Jacobites

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The King Over the Water: A Complete History of the Jacobites

The King Over the Water: A Complete History of the Jacobites

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However, views on the 'correct' balance of rights and duties between monarch and subject varied, and Jacobites attempted to distinguish between 'arbitrary' and 'absolute' power.

Applying primogeniture, the notional rights to the Stuarts' claim then passed to Henry's nearest surviving relative, Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia, and from him on to other members of the House of Savoy, and then to the Houses of Austria-Este and Wittelsbach over the subsequent two centuries. Seward argues convincingly that Jacobitism quickly became about far more than merely restoring a claimant to the throne.Symbols were commonly employed by Jacobites, given that they could not be prosecuted for their use; the most common of these was the White rose of York, adopted after 1688 for reasons now unclear. In the 30 years between the two largest risings – the Fifteen and the Forty-Five – repeated Jacobite pleas for further action were politely but firmly turned down.

You really do get the sense that the British state was rattled by the rebellion, and that fear of the Jacobites lingered long after the Forty-Five. Senior surviving descendant of Henry Cardinal of York's great aunt, Henrietta of Orleans, who was the youngest sister of James II/VII. The movement had an international dimension; several European powers sponsored the Jacobites as an extension of larger conflicts, while many Jacobite exiles served in foreign armies.The 1701 Act both confirmed these provisions [8] and added to them by clarifying the line of succession should Anne die without surviving issue. This is the first modern history for general readers of the entire Jacobite movement in Scotland, England and Ireland, from the 'Glorious Revolution' of 1688 that drove James II into exile to the death of his grandson, Cardinal Henry, Duke of York, in 1807. Much of the power held by the Highland chiefs derived from their ability to require military service from their clansmen and even before 1745 the clan system had been under severe stress due to changing economic conditions; the Heritable Jurisdictions Act removed such feudal controls by Highland chiefs.

They were, firstly, the divine right of kings, their accountability to God, not man or Parliament; secondly that monarchy was a divine institution; thirdly, the crown's descent by indefeasible hereditary right, which could not be overturned or annulled; and lastly the scriptural injunction of passive obedience and non-resistance, even towards monarchs of which the individual subject might disapprove. Other than Morgan, the vast majority of their members took no part in the 1745 Rising; Charles later said "I will do for the Welsh Jacobites what they did for me. Outside elite social circles, the Jacobite community circulated propaganda and symbolic objects through a network of clubs, print-sellers and pedlars, aimed at the provincial gentry and middling sort. Establishing the ideology of active participants is complicated by the fact that "by and large, those who wrote most did not act, and those who acted wrote little, if anything.Others argue riots were common in 18th-century urban areas and see them as a "series of ritualised clashes". With the death of the last Stuart, the House of Hanover was completely established as the only credible dynasty for the British throne. A Convention of the Scottish Estates took a different approach, and declared that James, by his wrongdoing, had forfeited the crown. Throughout the 17th century, the close connection between Scottish politics and religion meant changes of regime were accompanied by the losers being expelled from the kirk. Such "Whig-Jacobites" were highly valued by the exiled court, although many viewed James II as a potentially weak king from whom it would be easy to extract concessions in the event of a restoration.

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